When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe.
John Muir (1838-1914) from My First Summer in the Sierra
In philosophical terms, we can say that this signifies ontological dependence. This implies causal and compositional interdependence (and/or interpenentration) on a cosmic, open-system scale, and not confined to one domain or another.
For example, the Earth and the organisms in/on it are obviously dependent on things outside the Earth’s atmosphere, and therefore its composition and properties are also externally-dependent.
And, since nothing we have ever observed could be considered as ontologically independent—relying only on itself to exist—there is no reason to suppose that such a thing does indeed exist.
So, whilst I can imaginemyself as an independent and autonomous agent (physically and metaphysically speaking), or imagine an omnipotent and omniscient anthropomorphic entity hovering in deep space, unaffected by extreme physical conditions, I should expect such ideas to be aggressively challenged should I actually feel compelled to verbalise them.
In other words: connectedness and dependence should be our default lens, not an optional one. Assume explanatory problems are caused by an inability to map this dependence. The agency we ascribe is the agency we craft.
Great idea to help pay for adaptation projects in developing countries.
In one of the most radical climate programmes yet by an oil-producing nation, the Norwegian government has proposed increasing its carbon tax on offshore oil companies by £21 to £45 (Nkr410) per tonne of CO2 and a £5.50 (Nkr50) per tonne CO2 tax on its fishing industry.
Norway will also plough an extra £1bn (Nkr10bn) into its funds for climate change mitigation, renewable energy, food security in developing countries and conversion to low-carbon energy sources, Environmental Finance reported.
It will step up spending on new projects to combat deforestation in developing countries to £44m, taking up its spending overall on forestry programmes to £327m. Previous forestry projects have involved Brazil, Indonesia and Ethiopia.
Full story at The Guardian
Greenpeace investigative reporting breaks a huge pollution case - Russian oil firms are covering up massive oil spills, up to 30 million barrels of oil per year. About 4 million barrels are dumped into the Arctic ocean. More here with maps and graphics.